It is a disease that potentially disabled the nervous system (brain and spinal cord). It is an autoimmune condition in which healthy tissues are attacked by the immune system mistakenly.

Types and stages of multiple sclerosis: (1)

Four types of multiple sclerosis are as follows:

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS):

It is called the first stage of multiple sclerosis in which symptoms might last only for twenty-four hours. If the second attack of multiple sclerosis is observed after some time, your doctors would name it relapse remitting multiple sclerosis that is the second type.

Relapse remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS):

This type is the most common form and is found in both males and females. Eighty percent of patients are diagnoses with this type. Symptoms of remitting phase are new and growing. The remission phase is also observed in which symptoms come and go completely or partially.

Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS):

In this type of multiple sclerosis, symptoms get worst progressively. No early relapses and remission is observed in this case. The stability phase is also observed by the patients in whom symptoms get worst and then better at some points.

Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS):

At the start of this condition, phases of relapses and remission are experienced by patients of multiple sclerosis. After this phase, Condition might progresses slowly and steadily.

Sign and symptoms of multiple sclerosis:

CNS is affected by multiple sclerosis where CNS is the main part of the body that controls all the body actions. Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis can be observed in any part of the body. Most common signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis are:

Muscle weakness:

Due to the absence of stimulation by nerve damage, muscles of any body part can get weaken and it is very common among MS patients.

Numbness and tingling:

The sensation of pins and needles in the legs is an early sign and symptom of multiple sclerosis. Arms, legs, body, and face can also get affected due to multiple sclerosis.

Lhermitte’s sign:

The sensation of electric shock is also experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis. The sensation is mostly felt when you move their neck, this electric shock is known as the Lhermitte’s sign.

Bladder problems:

The difficulty is experienced in emptying the bladder. The patient feels the urge to urinate frequently. This urge is called incontinence. One early sign and symptoms also include loss of bladder control.

Bowel problems:

Faecal impaction can be caused due to constipation. This condition can also lead to incontinence.


Patients always feel tired to do work even at home. He seems to be lazy most of the time and it is one of the early signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

Dizziness and vertigo:

Balance and coordination are the most common problems of multiple sclerosis

Sexual dysfunction:

Interest in sex is lost in both males and females due to multiple sclerosis.

Spasticity and muscle spasms:

Painful muscle spasms are felt in the brain and spinal cord due to damage that occurred in nerve fibres. Pain is also felt in the leg due to spasms.


Involuntary movement is observed in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Vision problems:

Blurred and double vision is experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis. Some may completely lose their vision but in rare cases. One eye is mostly affected by multiple sclerosis. When the patient moves their eye, pain is felt due to damaged optic nerve. This problem is one of the early sign and symptoms.

Gait and mobility changes:

The walking way can be changed due to the weakness of muscles. Balance problems, fatigue, and sickness can also be experienced with multiple sclerosis.

Emotional changes and depression:

Damage to nerve fibre and demyelination can occur in the brain that will trigger emotional changes.

Learning and memory problems:

The difficulty is experienced in concentrating and planning. Patients also face problems in learning different things and prioritizing.


Multiple Sclerosis is greatly linked with pain. The patient may feel neuropathic pain due to multiple sclerosis. Pain is also due to the weakness of muscles and stiffness.

Some of the less common signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis are:

  • Hearing loss
  • Speech disorders
  • Problem in swallowing
  • Itching
  • Seizures
  • Breathing problems
  • Respiratory problems.
  • Seizures

People with multiple sclerosis are at high risk of developing UTIs. Loss of mobility and less activity is also common in MS patients. All these symptoms can greatly affect daily social life. Perception and thinking can be altered in later stages of multiple sclerosis. Some people may become sensitive to heat due to MS. Signs and symptoms of MS vary from person to person as MS affects every individual differently. It usually begins with subtle symptoms that might get worsen within months or years.

Some patients may experience only mild to moderate symptoms, while some may experience symptoms that might lead to disability. In some cases, symptoms are worst at the start but get better with time.

Treatment of multiple sclerosis (2)

No specific cure is available for multiple sclerosis but it can be managed with multiple drug treatments that can improve the quality of patients’ life. Discuss all your symptoms with your doctor so he can make the best treatment plan accordingly.

Disease-modifying drugs:

Some of the following drugs are given intramuscularly or beneath the skin. You might experience redness and itching after the shot.

Beta interferons:

Some drugs from this class include:

  • Peginterferon beta 1a
  • Interferon beta 1a
  • Interferon beta 1b


Dimethyl fumarate

Diroximal fumarate


Monomethyl fumarate






Treatment of flares:

When you are taking your medicine regularly, some flares might go away on their own. At that point, you don’t need to treat them.


If flares are troubling you, your doctor will recommend steroids of high dose, and the dose is administered intravenously. Sometimes it is given orally to ease the symptoms quickly. Some of the most common drugs are:

  • Methylprednisolone
  • Prednisone
  • ACTH

Plasma exchange:

Plasma exchange is recommended when medicine won’t help.